Ocular Toxicology

Ocular Toxicology / Toxicokinetics

Ocular Toxicology and Pharmacology models support the design and conduct of your essential studies needed to accurately determine pharmacokinetics and ocular toxicity. Our Ophthalmologist-led services include: comparative ophthalmologic examination in varieties of toxicity studies, eye irritation, new ocular drug toxicity and toxicokinetic (TK), pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD).

Our dedicated ophthalmology laboratory advances drug development for a wide range of ophthalmic indications using the most advanced ocular PD, PK and toxicology evaluation techniques. Ocular toxicology studies are available as single- or repeat-dose and can be conducted across a variety of species and in various dosage routes, including systemic, topical, subconjunctival, intravitreal, sub-retinal and retrobalbar.

Comparative Ophthalmology

Using slit-lamp and indirect ophthalmoscopy to examine the anterior and posterior segments of the eye, scientists on the comparative ophthalmology research team study the ophthalmological toxicity of animals for general toxicity studies. Available species include humans, non-human primates, dogs, rabbits and rodents.

Ocular Pharmacokinetics (PK)

Ocular PK studies assess tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics caused by ocular or systemic administration and can be conducted across a variety of species, tissues and liquids utilizing state-of-the-art evaluation techniques.

Eye Tissue Dissection

  • Conjunctivae
  • Cornea
  • Iris / ciliary body
  • Lens
  • Retina / choroid
  • Sclera
  • Optic nerve

Liquid Sampling

  • Aqueous humor
  • Vitreous humor
  • Serum

Evaluation Method

  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
  • Immunohistochemistry

Ocular Pharmacodynamics (PD)

Ocular PD studies assess the efficacy of new ocular drugs with access to more than 30 animal disease models. Additional services to support cell-therapy and gene-therapy are available. New models can be developed to meet your specific needs. The main animal models in-house are listed below:

  • Dry eye induced by benzalkonium instillation or by scopolamine injection
  • Allergic conjunctivitis induced by histamine instillation
  • Cataract induced by sodium selenite injection
  • Corneal neovascularization (CorNV) induced by stitching or by NaOH burn
  • Neurotrophic Keratitis (NK) induced by ciliary nerve damage
  • Acute glaucoma induced by intracameral injection of VISCOAT®
  • Chronic glaucoma induced by intracameral injection of magnetic microspheres
  • Chronic glaucoma induced by episcleral vein laser photocoagulation
  • Retinal ischemia reperfusion induced by elevating intraocular pressure
  • Optic nerve injury induced by clamping or partial transection
  • Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV) induced by laser photocoagulation
  • Retinal vascular leakage induced by AAV-VEGF injection
  • Central vein occlusion induced by laser photocoagulation
  • Oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR)
  • Retinopathy induced by lighting
  • Retinitis pigmentosa non-human primate (NHP) induced by sodium iodate injection