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Ophthalmology Services

Ophthalmology Services

Ocular Toxicology/Toxicokinetics

Using the most advanced ocular pharmacodynamics (PD), pharmacokinetic (PK) and toxicology evaluation techniques, the staff working in our dedicated laboratory help to advance drug development for a wide range of ophthalmic indications.

Our ophthalmologist-led services include:

  • Comparative ophthalmologic examination across a variety of ocular studies, including eye irritation, new ocular drug toxicity and toxicokinetic (TK), PK and PD
  • Single- and repeat-dose ocular toxicology studies, conducted across a variety of species and via various dosage routes including systemic, topical, subconjunctival, intracameral, intravitreal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal and retrobalbar

Comparative Ophthalmology

For general toxicity studies, scientists on the comparative ophthalmology research team study the opthalmological toxicity of rodents, rabbits, canines, Non-human Primates (NHPs) and humans using slit-lamp and indirect ophthalmoscopy to examine the anterior and posterior segments of the eye.

Ocular Pharmacokinetics (PK)

Using state-of-the-art evaluation techniques, ocular PK studies assess tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics caused by ocular or systemic administration, and can be conducted across a variety of species, tissues and liquids.

 Eye Tissue Dissection

  • Conjunctivae
  • Cornea
  • Iris/ciliary body
  • Lens
  • Retina/choroid
  • Sclera
  • Optic nerve


Liquid Sampling

  • Tear
  • Aqueous humor
  • Vitreous humor
  • Blood, plasma and serum


Evaluation Method

  • LC-MS/MS
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
  • Immunohistochemistry


Ocular Pharmacodynamics (PD)

Ocular PD studies assess the efficacy of new ocular drugs via more than 30 animal disease models, with additional services available to support cell- and gene-therapy drug development. While new models can be developed to meet your specific needs, following are the main animal models available in-house:


  • Dry eye induced by benzalkonium instillation or by scopolamine injection
  • Allergic conjunctivitis induced by histamine instillation
  • Cataract induced by sodium selenite injection
  • Corneal neovascularization (CorNV) induced by stitching or by NaOH burn
  • Neurotrophic Keratitis (NK) induced by ciliary nerve damage
  • Acute glaucoma induced by intracameral injection of VISCOAT®
  • Chronic glaucoma induced by intracameral injection of magnetic microspheres
  • Chronic glaucoma induced by episcleral vein laser photocoagulation
  • Retinal ischemia reperfusion induced by elevating intraocular pressure
  • Optic nerve injury induced by clamping or partial transection
  • Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV) induced by laser photocoagulation
  • Retinal vascular leakage induced by intravitreal VEGF or CA-I injection
  • Central vein occlusion induced by laser photocoagulation
  • Oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) in mice
  • Retinopathy induced by lighting
  • Retinopathy induced by sodium iodate in rats, rabbits and NHPs.
  • Streptozotocin induced diabetic retinopathy in rats
  • Uveitis in rats