Drug-Drug Interaction

As your partner, WuXi AppTec’s DMPK team offers you a comprehensive portfolio of in vitro assays that are specifically designed to meet global regulatory drug-drug interaction (DDI) guidelines. This includes guidance from U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medical Agency (EMA) and China’s National Medical Products Administration (NMPA). In addition, analysis of mechanisms of inhibition can provide key information to help you plan and design your clinical DDI studies.


  • Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Inhibition – direct inhibition (DI) and time-dependent inhibition (TDI), IC50, Ki and kinact/KI
  • CYP Induction (mRNA and activity levels-1A2, 2B6, 3A4, 2C8, 2C9 and 2C19)
  • CYP Phenotyping – substrate depletion and metabolite formation
  • Inhibition and phenotyping of other DDI related enzymes (e.g. UGT, SULT and ADH etc.)

Transporters – Substrate and Inhibitor assays

  • Membrane vesicles – efflux transporters (BCRP, P-gp, BSEP, MRP2, MRP3, MRP4, MATE1 and MATE2K)
  • Cell-based assays:
    • Cellular uptake – OAT1, OAT3, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT1, OCT2, PEPT1, PEPT2, NTCP, ASBT and OATP2B1
    • Permeation – transfected MDCK II (BCRP and P-gp) and MDCK I (P-gp) and Caco-2 cells (BCRP and P-gp)