Drug-Drug Interaction

Complete Services for your DDI Studies

As your partner, WuXi AppTec offers a comprehensive portfolio of in vitro assays specifically designed to meet global regulatory drug-drug interaction (DDI) guidelines. This includes guidance from U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medical Agency (EMA) and China’s National Medical Products Administration (NMPA). We also offer analysis of mechanisms of inhibition, which provides key information for successful planning and design of clinical DDI studies.

Our Capabilities Include:


  • Cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition – Direct Inhibition (DI) and Time-Dependent Inhibition (TDI), IC50, Ki and kinact/KI
  • CYP Induction (mRNA and activity levels-1A2, 2B6, 3A4, 2C8, 2C9 and 2C19)
  • CYP Phenotyping – substrate depletion and metabolite formation
  • Inhibition and phenotyping of other DDI-related enzymes (e.g. UGT, SULT, ADH etc.)


Transporters – Substrate and Inhibitor Assays

  • Membrane vesicles – efflux transporters (BCRP, P-gp, BSEP, MRP2, MRP3, MRP4, MATE1 and MATE2K)
  • Cell-based assays including:
    • Cellular uptake – OAT1, OAT3, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT1, OCT2, PEPT1, PEPT2, NTCP, ASBT and OATP2B1
    • Permeation – transfected MDCK II (BCRP and P-gp), MDCK I (P-gp) and Caco-2 cells (BCRP and P-gp)